By Thomas Alloway, Lester Krames, Patrica Pliner
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Extra info for Communication and Affect. A Comparative Approach
There are also research contexts in which the efficient tactic would be to emphasize security behaviors or disorganization indices. This would be the case when the purpose of an approach is specifically to understand aversive stimulus control in natural settings, the disorganization brought on by interference with attachment or dependence behaviors, or disorganization generally, and not to deal directly with issues of positive stimulus control over relevant behaviors as such. Before discussing in greater detail some tactical issues relevant to the determination of appropriate indices of attachment or dependence, some general points regarding the choice of indices and the methods of measurement should first be noted.
A child who ordinarily exhibits consensually valued behaviors that are maintained by "positive attention" might exhibit negative deviations for attention when those around him are quite busy. Similarly, after exposure to a brief period of social isolation, children for whose behaviors social approval had acquired strong positive reinforcing value (as determined by a questionnaire) emitted relatively more "incorrect" responses that were (positively) reinforced by contingent disapproval connoting "negative attention" (hearing the visible experimenter say "you're wrong") than they emitted "correct" responses that were followed by a contingent flash of light (Gallimore, Tharp, & Kemp, 1969).
L. Gewirtz, 1969). In contrast, it is recalled that Ainsworth (1967) employed differential smiling as an attachment behavior. Thus, the decision to refer a set of functional relations to a superordinate concept like "attachment" or "dependence" has often been one of strategy (more than of tactics). Nevertheless, an all-too-frequent consequence of such an entirely legitimate conceptual decision has been the deemphasis of the functional S—R relations detected. As a result, such findings have been contributing far less than they should have been to the literatures of the behavior systems involved.
Communication and Affect. A Comparative Approach by Thomas Alloway, Lester Krames, Patrica Pliner