Download PDF by Paul Yates: Chemical Calculations : Mathematics for Chemistry, Second

By Paul Yates

ISBN-10: 142000865X

ISBN-13: 9781420008654

Basics optimistic and adverse Numbers priority in Equations Rearranging Equations Fractions Indices usual shape facing Uncertainty in Experimental suggestions exhibiting Uncertainties within the dimension of Absorbance size in Chemistry Stoichiometric Calculations Uncertainty in size Thermodynamics Fractions and Indices within the Equilibrium consistent Bond Enthalpies The Born-Haber Cycle Heat Read more...

summary: basics confident and adverse Numbers priority in Equations Rearranging Equations Fractions Indices general shape facing Uncertainty in Experimental ideas showing Uncertainties within the size of Absorbance size in Chemistry Stoichiometric Calculations Uncertainty in dimension Thermodynamics Fractions and Indices within the Equilibrium consistent Bond Enthalpies The Born-Haber Cycle warmth capability Clapeyron Equation Clausius-Clapeyron Equation the best fuel Equation The Van der Waals Equation Equilibrium Constants resolution C

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Sample text

The = sign tells the program that we are about to input a formula. The SUM function adds the values in the range of cells specified in the following in brackets, in this case B3 to K3. Pressing Enter leads to the value 17 287. This is the sum of the values for the aldehydes. We now copy this formula to the other compounds by dragging the corner of cell M3 down as far as M7. Having obtained the sums for each class of compound, we now need to determine the overall sum. Label this by typing the text “Sum” in cell K9.

098 80 mol dm−3 to 4 significant figures, since the leading zeros are not significant and the trailing zero is significant as it increases the precision to which the number is specified. 098 803 6 mol dm−3 to 6 significant figures because the leading zeros are not significant, and the enclosed zero is significant. Now, consider what happens if we wish to express the concentration to 5 significant figures. 098 803 mol dm−3, but if we look at the first digit immediately to the right of this, which we have deleted, we find that it is a 6.

In this case, you will have to estimate the probable uncertainty; we will see shortly that there are two ways in which this may be done. 001 V, for example. We use the ± symbol in the specification of uncertainties to show that they have an equal chance of being too high or too low by this amount. You need to be able to distinguish between three definitions of uncertainties. To illustrate these, suppose you have estimated that the uncertainty on a quantity X is ∆X. We can then define The Greek letter ∆ (capital delta) is conventionally used to denote a difference in two values of a quantity.

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Chemical Calculations : Mathematics for Chemistry, Second Edition by Paul Yates


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