Download PDF by D. Rubingh: Cationic Surfactants (Surfactant Science)

By D. Rubingh

ISBN-10: 0585352437

ISBN-13: 9780585352435

ISBN-10: 0824783573

ISBN-13: 9780824783570

Concentrating on the answer actual chemistry and floor houses of cationic surfactants, 3 significant sections study the homes of cationic surfactants themselves either in resolution and at interfaces, the interactions of cationic surfactants with different fabrics, and purposes of cationic s

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Ternary Systems Containing Amphiphilic Oils 29 C. Ternary Systems Containing Nonpolar Oils 32 Page 2 VIII. Correlations of Binary Phase Behavior with Molecular Structure 32 A. Lipophilic Group Chain Length 32 B. Proximate Substituents 33 C. Counterion Structure 33 Summary 37 References 38 I Scope In this chapter the phase behavior of aqueous systems containing cationic surfactant salts will be described and the dependence of this behavior on molecular structure reviewed. The term ''cationic surfactant salt" will be used to denote ionic compounds in which the cation is amphiphilic (contains nonpolar structural elements as well as the cationic site) and is strongly surface-active.

35, and 10) than for the quaternary ammonium salt-water systems. (c) Completeness of the Data The diagrams shown represent a classic and probably largely correct description of the phase behavior of these systems. But the phase study methods used will not neces- Page 24 sarily have recognized all the phases present. In soap-water systems studied using these methods two phases existing at compositions between the hexagonal and lamellar phases, termed "intermediate" phases, were recently recognized [28,29].

It is possible that phase changes involving thermotropic liquid crystal phases are second order, but distinguishing between a second-order discontinuity and a first-order discontinuity having a very narrow miscibility gap is extremely difficult [5,24]. The "rule of alternation" dictates that along any isothermal or isoplethal trajectory within a diagram, one must pass alternately between even and odd numbers of phases as boundaries are crossed. For example, in passing the melting point of a one-component system one passes from a one-phase state (crystal) at low temperatures through a two-phase state (crystal + liquid), at the mp, back to a one-phase state (liquid) at higher temperatures.

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Cationic Surfactants (Surfactant Science) by D. Rubingh

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