By Ronald L. Numbers, Kostas Kampourakis (eds.)
A falling apple encouraged Isaac Newton’s perception into the legislations of gravity―or so the tale is going. Is it real? possibly no longer. however the extra interesting query is why such tales undergo as reasons of ways technological know-how occurs. Newton’s Apple and different Myths approximately Science brushes away well known misconceptions to supply a clearer photo of significant medical breakthroughs from precedent days to the present.
Among the myths refuted during this quantity is the concept that no technology used to be performed in the dead of night a while, that alchemy and astrology have been basically superstitious ambitions, that worry of public response by myself led Darwin to hold up publishing his idea of evolution, and that Gregor Mendel used to be a long way sooner than his time as a pioneer of genetics. numerous twentieth-century myths approximately particle physics, Einstein’s concept of relativity, and extra are discredited the following to boot. moreover, a few large generalizations approximately technological know-how pass less than the microscope of background: the thought that faith impeded technology, that scientists commonly adhere to a codified “scientific method,” and shiny line should be drawn among valid technological know-how and pseudoscience.
Edited through Ronald Numbers and Kostas Kampourakis, Newton’s Apple and different Myths approximately Science debunks the frequent trust that technology advances whilst person geniuses event “Eureka!” moments and unexpectedly understand what these round them might by no means think. technological know-how has constantly been a cooperative firm of committed, fallible humans, for whom context, collaboration, and sheer solid success are the basic parts of discovery.
By Sam M. Austin
The cyclotron laboratory at MSU has been identified for years because the most sensible collage nuclear physics laboratory within the usa, and maybe on the earth. yet only a few, even in its place of birth of East Lansing, understand how it completed that prestige or why it prospered while laboratories at many different well-known universities faded.
during this ebook Austin, a nuclear physicist who has been on the laboratory because the starting of its ascent, offers us a striking tale. It starts off with a great person, Henry Blosser, who based the laboratory, outfitted a cyclotron accelerator of uniquely excessive precision, and recruited a crew of nuclear physicists that used it to set up the laboratory’s attractiveness. Its credibility ended in a series of accelerators, each one working in a distinct sub?eld whereas carrying on with a practice of leading edge technology, and to a laboratory tradition that fostered the braveness and foresight to compete for the FRIB within the face of daunting odds.
By Rina Knoeff
Herman Boerhaave, who held professorships in drugs, botany, and chemistry on the collage of Leiden, is usually thought of crucial scientific instructor after Galen. identified in the course of his lifetime as "The instructor of Europe," his attractiveness was once alleged to have reached all of the method to China. formerly, historians of technology and drugs have under pressure the mechanical points of his teachings, yet have missed the rules at the back of them, lots of that are alien to fashionable technological know-how. This ebook indicates that Boerhaave's average philosophy and method have been rooted in his deep spiritual religion, and that Calvinism guided a lot of his clinical inspiration.
By Moritz Schlick, Mathias Iven
Ethischen Problemen hat Moritz Schlick zeitlebens große Aufmerksamkeit entgegen gebracht, insbesondere den Fragen nach dem Sinn des Lebens und nach der Konstituierung einer allgemein zu akzeptierenden ethical. Die Schriften "Lebensweisheit" (1907) und "Fragen der Ethik" (1930) bilden sozusagen die Eckpunkte seiner bereits seit Anfang des 20. Jahrhunderts entwickelten Auffassung von der Ethik als einer psychologisch begründeten Lust- und Glückseligkeitslehre.
Die Texte basieren auf den Originalausgaben und wurden anhand der nachgelassenen Manuskripte bzw. Typoskripte textkritisch bearbeitet und kommentiert. Durch den Kontext der Werke ergeben sich neue und wertvolle Einsichten in die Entwicklung von Schlicks ethisch-moralischem Denken.
By Jon Elster
Technical switch, outlined because the manufacture and amendment of instruments, is mostly proposal to have performed an immense position within the evolution of clever lifestyles on the earth, such as that of language. during this quantity, first released in 1983, Jon Elster ways the examine of technical swap from an epistemological viewpoint. He first units out the most tools of clinical rationalization after which applies these how you can a number of the crucial theories of technical switch. particularly, Elster considers neoclassical, evolutionary, and Marxist theories, when additionally devoting a bankruptcy to Joseph Schumpeter's influential concept.
By Carl Hempel
In accordance with easy good points research of grid engineering building venture threat below PMC version, the paper units up gray analytic evaluation version for venture owner's threat administration, addressing particular and lifelike difficulties propping up throughout the undertaking strategy. The version presents a framework for the venture proprietor to manage and deal with dangers, with intensity dialogue at the nature, evaluate, keep an eye on and explanations of man-made, monetary, usual and particular dangers. during this approach, the paper enriches the idea of hazard administration and keep an eye on and in addition stories the reasonable difficulties. accordingly, the paper is operational orientated with a pretty good theoretical starting place and supply an invaluable counsel for the undertaking owners. Read more...
By Karel Berka
For a long time, Karel Berka has labored at a few of the important difficulties of the idea of the sciences. straight away a truth seeker, a mathematician, a cautious pupil of the actual sciences and the social sciences, and a pointy yet sympathetic critic of the most important philosophies of technology during this century, Berka brings to this treatise on size either his technical mastery and his historic sensitivity. We savor his cautious research of his predecessors, significantly Helmholtz, Campbell, Holder, Bridgman, Camap, Hempel, and Stevens, and of his contemporaries comparable to Brian Ellis and in addition Patrick Suppes and J. L. Zinnes. the problems to be clarified are known yet nonetheless troubling: tips to justify the conceptual transition from type to a metric; tips on how to discover how you can supply a quantitative realizing of a qualitative notion; certainly the right way to comprehend, and thereby keep watch over, the Galilean enthusiasm "to degree what's measurable and to aim to render measurable what's no longer in order yet".