By Edward C. Page, Vincent Wright
This assortment presents beneficial information regarding the constructions and composition of the better civil carrier and its place within the political constitution via a comparative research of england, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Belgium, the Netherlands, Austria, Greece, Denmark, and Sweden. The e-book explores how better civil carrier has constructed within the gentle of the large adjustments in ecu societies long ago thirty years.
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Extra info for Bureaucratic Elites in Western European States
30,502 state schools) Environment 10,969 Defence (excl. 7,078 armed forces) Health (excl. 6,940 health assistance) Agriculture and 5,805 Fisheries Foreign Affairsc 5,669 Presidency 3,747 Industry and 2,971 Energy Public Adminis- 2,487 tration Justice 1,750 TOTAL 287,969 Civil servants 51,194 43,739 Group A 1,777 4,101 Levels 28–9 414 474 Level 30 123 141 26,841 1,893 176 31 37,710 3,886 2,151 511 24,159 1,408 213 74 14,505 3,888 1,112 150 4,132 7,069 961 252 175 86 60 25 4,810 1,358 182 80 4,055 1,147 253 112 2,342 1,101 1,808 798 251 597 335 77 184 201 101 71 1,818 362 196 70 1,560 200,002 327 21,113 217 6,069 29 1,748 Includes 55,029 employees in the General Post Ofﬁce (56 of them in the three top levels).
Bureaucrats were a functional substitute for parties during the dictatorship (Constantino and Carrillo, 1994: 688), and the emergence of a civil service as the main instrument of political recruitment increased the power of the corps and their self-regulation with regard to the system of promotion, appointments to particular posts, and pay. Hidden under the label of technocrats (many of them sharing membership in the traditionalist Catholic organization Opus Dei), top ofﬁcials were conservative and supported the dictatorship.
Moreover, reform weakened the corps to some degree. There were mergers of the more fragmented corps, generalists were encouraged, and positions in the public sector were reclassiﬁed to reduce the power of the corps. Under these reforms, pay was determined by the post occupied (thus it remained indirectly related to the corps because posts, although not reserved, tend to be ﬁlled by the same corps) and productivity. However, while the Socialist government fostered the relative politicization of the bureaucratic élite through the system of free designation among civil servants for top posts, powerful corps are still the main features of the administration.
Bureaucratic Elites in Western European States by Edward C. Page, Vincent Wright