By C. K. Catchpole;P. J. B. Slater
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Kroodsma pointed out that too few stimuli can lead to Ôpseudoreplication’ problems. Technically, pseudoreplication is the use of inferential statistics to test for treatment eﬀects with data from experiments where either treatments are not replicated or replicates are not statistically independent. In song playback experiments, it can occur when only a restricted range of song stimuli are used to test a much more general hypothesis about the functions of song. g. Catchpole 1989, Searcy 1989, 1990, Weary & Mountjoy 1992) and also to a special workshop and book on the design of playback experiments (McGregor 1992a).
To do this Suthers (1990) implanted tiny bead thermistors (miniature sensors) in the centre of each bronchial lumen close to the MTM (Fig. 1). By synchronising recordings in the syrinx with those from the singing bird, he was able to pinpoint which half contributed which sound to the ﬁnal song. For example, in the grey catbird the contribution of each half of the syrinx varied from syllable to syllable (see Fig. 2). Some were produced only from the right, some only from the left, and others by a 24 SOUND PRODUCTION combination of right and left.
Sexual dimorphism occurs in the song control centres of the zebra ﬁnch brain. The developmental changes in the HVC of male and female zebra ﬁnches involve not only the production of new neurons but also neuron death (from Kirn & DeVoogd 1989). (1986) studied two diﬀerent species of tropical duetting wren species, the bay wren and the rufous-and-white wren. Male and female bay wrens have similar sized repertoires, and there were no signiﬁcant diﬀerences between their HVC and RA sizes. In rufous-and-white wrens, females have smaller repertoires than their males, and their HVC and RA sizes are rather less than in the males.
Bird song : biological themes and variation by C. K. Catchpole;P. J. B. Slater