By Lawrence J. Berliner, Pierre-Marie Robitaille
This quantity constitutes a compilation of the newest experiments and theories on a swiftly evolving and maturing box in MRI/MRS, that's using the good isotope 13-C. The 13-C is used to probe the chemistry, mechanism, and serve as in residing structures.
all of the chapters are written via specialists within the box who talk about subject matters comparable to `Tracer idea and the Suitability of 13-C NMR', `Applications of 13-C to reviews of Human mind Metabolism', and so on.
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Extra info for Biological Magnetic Resonance: Volume 15: In vivo Carbon-13 NMR (Biological Magnetic Resonance)
Henning et al. labeled the glycogen pool using either [5-3H] or [U-14C]glu- 34 Maren R. Laughlin andJoanneK. O11 Figure 11. Metabolic heterogeneity can appear as altered fractional enrichments measured in whole tissues. If B is produced only from A in a single metabolic pool, F A = F B as shown on the left. If A reacts to give B in only one pool, and other pools containing both A and B also exist in the tissue as shown on the right, the resultant fractional enrichments of A and B are weighted averages of the two pools, and will not be the same.
The following simple treatment of tracer data is taken from the single pool model (Wolfe, 1992). The equations are taken from radioactive tracer theory, and therefore are altered to reflect the fact that the 16 Maren R. Laughlin and Joanne K. Kelleher 13C experiment often uses large concentrations of labeled molecules. The following definitions will be used: A* is the infused 13C-labeled compound A, B, C are pool sizes (mol) in the compartments B*, C*, etc. are the pool sizes (mol) of 13C-labeled metabolites AT, BT CT, etc.
This was successfully used in the brain of intact cats to separate resonances from 13C-labeled glutamate, glutamine, lactate, and glucose. 36 Maren R. Laughlin and Joanne K. 2. Metabolic Perturbation In the in vivo experiment, it is important to choose methods that minimally perturb the system under study. From one standpoint, this is achieved beautifully by in vivo 13C NMR in that multiple "samples" can be taken over time in a nondestructive way. From another point of view, however, the large concentration of label that must be present for adequate signal-to-noise in active, biological systems may constitute in itself an overwhelming metabolic perturbation.
Biological Magnetic Resonance: Volume 15: In vivo Carbon-13 NMR (Biological Magnetic Resonance) by Lawrence J. Berliner, Pierre-Marie Robitaille