Read e-book online Basic Principles of Membrane Technology PDF

By Marcel Mulder (auth.)

ISBN-10: 0792309790

ISBN-13: 9780792309796

ISBN-10: 9401708355

ISBN-13: 9789401708357

Membranes playa critical position in our everyday life, or as indicated via certainly one of my international colleagues, Richard Bowen, 'If you're bored with membranes, you're bored with existence' . organic membranes are hardly ever utilized in business purposes, yet separations with man made membranes became more and more very important. this present day, membrane procedures are utilized in a variety of functions and their numbers will surely elevate. accordingly, there's a want for good trained and certified engineers, chemists, scientists and technicians who've been taught the fundamental rules of membrane expertise. even though, regardless of the turning out to be significance of membrane approaches, there are just a few universities that come with membrane expertise of their average curricula. one of many purposes for this can be the inability of a complete textbook. For me, this used to be one of many riding forces for writing a textbook at the simple ideas of membrane know-how which supplies a large view at the numerous points of membrane expertise. I have an understanding of that membrane expertise covers a vast box yet however i've got attempted to explain the elemental ideas of many of the disciplines. even supposing the e-book used to be written with the scholar in brain it might probably additionally function a primary creation for engineers, chemists, and technicians in all type of industries who desire to research the fundamentals of membrane technology.

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Extra info for Basic Principles of Membrane Technology

Example text

So-called 'weak-spots' such as unsaturated groups, -NH groups, ester groups, must be avoided if highly resistant membranes are to be obtained. II . 8 Thermal and chemical stability Ceramics have become of increasing interest as membrane materials because of their outstanding thermal and chemical stability in comparison to polymers. On increasing the temperature the physical and chemical properties of polymers change and they finally degrade. The extent of such change depends on the type of polymer with roughly speaking the glass transition temperature T g being an important parameter for glassy amorphous polymers and the melting point T m for crystalline polymers.

Elastomers (low Tg) are very permeable and listed at the top of the table; polydimethylsiloxane (Tg = - 123CC) and other rubbers in general are especially permeable. In contrast, glassy polymers (high CHAPTER II 32 Tg) are located in the lower part of the table. Another very striking point is that the selectivities for 0iN2 do not increase as the permeability decreases. All the polymers exhibit selectivities within the range from 2 to 6. Although the glass transition temperatures are not given, no unique relationship exists between permeability and Tg, merely a rough trend.

Generally, mechanical properties are not very important in membrane CHAPTER II 36 processes because the membrane is held by a supporting material. However, hollow fibers and capillary membranes are self-supporting and in these cases the mechanical properties may become important, especially when high pressures are applied such as in gas separation. g. g. silicone rubber), the capillary will break. g. polyimide) can easily withstand such a pressure and indeed much higher pressures with a proper choice of fiber diameter and wall thickness.

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Basic Principles of Membrane Technology by Marcel Mulder (auth.)

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